AML Geophysical Survey Reports Available in HTML format

Listed below are the 77 AML geophysical survey reports that are currently available in HTML format. A summary is included for each, where available. The code appearing to the left of the title is the AML report series number. Clicking on a report title will take you to the full text of the report. We hope to provide HTML versions of all new reports as they are written.

This listing is generated automatically from the Geophysical Survey Database. Reports listed as Unnumbered have not yet been entered into the AML report series.

NB: We regret that, at present, certain plans containing locational information cannot be made available in the HTML versions of the reports.


80/93 BUCKLAND RINGS, LYMINGTON, HAMPSHIRE, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, APRIL 1993
Payne A W
Magnetometer and magnetic susceptibility surveys were carried out in 1993 within the Iron Age hillfort of Buckland Rings for management purposes. The survey provided some evidence of the arrangement of the fortifications and entrance features as well as the position of former archaeological interventions in the 1930s by Hawkes. Unfortunately the survey was unable to provide conclusive evidence on the nature of the utilisation and occupation of the fort interior, and is therefore of limited value for informing future management strategy for the site.

88/93 WOODBURY FARM, AXMINSTER, DEVON. INTERIM REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1993
Linford N T
This survey successfully demonstrated the presence of archaeological anomalies to the west of the current scheduled Roman Fort at Woodbury Farm, Axminster, Devon. Unfortunately the response in the north part of the site has been hampered by the presence of buried pipelines.

108/93 ASHAMPSTEAD COMMON, ASHAMPSTEAD, BERKSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1993
Linford P K
A geophysical survey was carried out around the location at Ashampstead Common, where a medieval pottery kiln was discovered during landscaping near a field boundary. No anomalies were revealed that could definitely be interpreted as kilns, although two features of the correct size and field strength were detected. The most striking anomalies in the survey were a random scatter of amorphously shaped areas of magnetic enhancement, possibly representing pits associated with pottery manufacture.

115/93 BOLSOVER CASTLE, BOLSOVER, DERBYSHIRE REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1993
Linford P K
A geophysical survey was carried out in the walled garden at Bolsover Castle, with the hope of finding features related to a previous formal garden. Buried pipes were detected that were likely to have supplied water to the fountain at the centre of the garden, and to the adjacent Little Castle. In addition, a number of less distinct anomalies were identified that may represent the remains of the layout of a previous parterre.

118/93 FREENS COURT, SUTTON ST MICHAEL, HEREFORD & WORCESTER: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JUNE 1991
Payne A W
A geophysical survey was carried out over the remains of two buildings revealed as parchmarks in July 1990 on aerial photographs. The parchmarks were equated with the site of a Mercian (8th century AD) royal palace, located in the area according to historical sources. The survey was commissioned to provide evidence in support of measures to secure the statutory protection of the site. Resistivity survey provided exceptionally clear definition of the extent and layout of the structural remains seen on APs, together with associated features not previously visible. Details of a surrounding complex of Medieval earthworks linked to the former moated manor of Freens Court were also resolved. The clear description of the site provided by the survey evidence has enabled informed protection measures to be introduced to safeguard the future preservation of the archaeology.

19/94 UFTON NERVET, BERKSHIRE REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1994
Linford N T
The aim of this survey was to detect building foundations on the raised platform of the moated site at Ufton Nervet, Berks. Unfortunately, the survey was hampered by a combination of the ground disturbance caused by recent tree felling work and the high contact resistance of the site as a result of a period of dry weather prior to the survey.

26/94 MERDON CASTLE, HURSLEY, HAMPSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY 1994.
Cole M A
Geophysical survey was undertaken at Merdon Castle, Hursley, Hampshire, in response to a request from Steven Trow, the Inspector of Ancient Monuments responsible for the site. A management plan for the future upkeep of the monument is currently being prepared by EH in conjunction with Winchester City Council and the land owners. The aim of the survey was to attempt to locate any buried structures surviving within the earthworks at Merdon, and in particular within the well preserved 12th century Norman ringwork. The results of the resistivity survey indicate that buried foundations of walls and buildings are present, predominantly within the inner ward of the ringwork. Unfortunately, the sheer amount of recent activity at the site has severely impaired the effectiveness of magnetometer survey.

28/94 WEST ACRE PRIORY, NORFOLK
Linford N T
The aim of this survey was to aid the interpretation of the remains of the substantial Augustinian Priory at West Acre, Norfolk to assist with the ongoing management of the monument. Whilst the survey revealed a number of potentially significant anomalies the data was of insufficient clarity to enable detailed interpretation or to fully gauge the relationship of these anomalies to the remains of the medieval Priory.

29/94 TREVIGUE, ST. GENNY'S CORNWALL. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1994
Linford P K
A geophysical survey was carried out at Trevigue near St. Genny's in northern Cornwall to detect any surviving remains of a shrunken medieval settlement thought to have existed on the site. Results were disappointing and no definite archaeological features were detected with either magnetometry or resistivity. Nevertheless, several linear anomalies were revealed in the resistivity survey that may indicate the presence of poorly preserved wall footings.

34/94 GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY AT PENHALE MOOR, PENHALE, CORNWALL
Linford N T
Magnetic survey of the site at Penhale Moor, Cornwall confirmed the presence of archaeological anomalies detected as a series of cropmarks by previous aerial photography. Subsequent trial excavation by the Cornish Archaeological Unit, prior to the construction of the A30 road improvements, revealed the presence of a Bronze Age dwelling and an associated scatter of pit/post hole features.

55/94 ST ANDREW'S HILL CULLOMPTON, DEVON. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY JANUARY 1992
Linford N T
Magnetic survey of the site at St Andrew's Hill, Cullompton, Devon confirmed the presence of archaeological anomalies detected as a series of cropmarks by aerial photography in 1984. However, no significant magnetic anomalies were detected in the immediate environs of the fort to the west, where the Town council proposed the extension of the existing town cemetery. Subsequent excavation by the Exeter Museum Archaeological Field Unit, prior to this development revealed a Roman fort ditch running alongside the eastern boundary of the proposed cemetery extension. The failure of this quite substantial feature to be detected as a magnetic anomaly was attributed to the concentration of modern ferrous material that had accumulated within this area of the survey.

60/94 COMMENTS ON PLOTS OF RESISTIVITY DATA, MIDDLETON HALL, CUMBRIA
Cole M A
The plots enclosed are based on the results of a resistivity survey undertaken at the site of Middleton Hall, Cumbria (SD 63 88, County Monument 494) by Dr D J Woolliscroft of Manchester University. The survey data was forwarded to the Ancient Monuments Laboratory for computer processing. The processed plots show that, although the site has responded well to the technique, the resistivity results simply corroborate those of the topographic survey and little additional information has been detected. Consequently the survey has not provided enough information to allow the earthworks to be confidently attributed to a particular period.

1/95 CLEEVE ABBEY, WASHFORD, SOMERSET, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1995
Linford P K & Linford N T
A geophysical survey was carried out at Cleeve Abbey near Washford in Somerset to locate any possible buried archaeological remains, in advance of the excavation of a new field drain through the land surrounding the monument. Results were somewhat disappointing owing to the alluvial drift geology of the area; nevertheless, a number of potential features were identified.

6/95 FARTHING DOWN, COULSDON, SURREY. REPORT ON MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY SURVEY JANUARY 1995.
Linford N T
A number of subsurface soil samples were recovered from two extant earthwork features along the central ridge of Farthing Down, Coulsdon, Surrey for subsequent magnetic measurement. The values obtained for the volume magnetic susceptibility of the samples were then used to estimate the character of magnetic anomaly that these features would create, to aid both the interpretation of the disappointing 1991 magnetometer survey and improve the provision of advice regarding the use of geophysics in evaluation of this site.

16/95 YARNTON CASSINGTON PROJECT, OXFORDSHIRE. CRESSWELL FIELD. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH 1995
Linford N T
This survey was conducted prior to the removal of topsoil from the majority of Cresswell field,Yarnton, Oxon. to facilitate the recording of archaeological features by the Oxford Archaeological Unit (OAU) in advance of its eventual destruction through gravel extraction. In defiance of the relatively disappointing geophysical results obtained from the Yarnton-Cassington Project area to date, the survey reported here has revealed a plethora of significant magnetic anomalies; these initial results have aided the precise location of the subsequent OAU excavation/recording programme.

17/95 HOE HILLS, DOWSBY, LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS OCTOBER 1994 AND MARCH 1995
Cole M A
Geophysical survey was undertaken at Hoe Hills, Dowsby, Lincs, in response to a request from the Fenland Management Project (FMP). An initial magnetometer survey was carried out in October 1994 to assist with the interpretation of multiperiod activity revealed by FMP excavations already under way at the site. Acting on the results of this survey the magnetometer coverage was extended during a second visit in March 1995 to encompass crop mark activity to the north of the excavations. Additionally this visit provided an opportunity to investigate the relationship between the archaeology and a former river channel also evident in the APs. The site conditions proved ideal for magnetometer and results of rare clarity were obtained. Widespread settlement activity was mapped and the former river course was also detected clearly. Unfortunately the results do not allow any confident conclusions to be drawn with regard to the relationship between the channel and the buried archaeology.

18/95 REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS AT THREE BARROW SITES NEAR HIGHAM FERRERS, NORTHANTS, MARCH 1995.
Cole M A
Geophysical surveys were undertaken over three suspected barrow sites near Higham Ferrers, Northants in response to a request from the Raunds Area Project (RAP). The aim of the surveys was to confirm their presence, size and number of associated quarry ditches. It was also hoped that any related features, both internal and external, would be mapped. Magnetometer surveys were carried out in each case and a resistance survey was also conducted at one of the sites. The results of the magnetometer surveys successfully confirmed the presence of single ditched barrows at two of the sites with some evidence of internal features also being detected within one of these barrows. The resistance survey carried out at this latter site proved particularly informative and increased detail of internal structure was recorded. The results of the magnetometer survey from the third site were more enigmatic and an additional resistance survey is recommended here to clarify its interpretation.

41/95 MORNINGTON HOUSE FARM, GOSBERTON, LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY.
Cole M A
Magnetometer survey was undertaken at Mornington House Farm, Gosberton, Lincs., in response to a request from the Fenland Management Project (FMP). Fieldwalking had discovered a surface scatter of Saxon material, including 8 lava querns, and aerial photography indicated the presence of an enclosure near these finds. The aim of the geophysical survey was to attempt to map any buried archaeological features in advance of a programme of trial trenching by the FMP. The results were disappointing, however, and only very limited evidence of the Saxon activity subsequently revealed by excavation was detected by the magnetometer.

44/95 VESPASIAN'S CAMP, AMESBURY, WILTSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, AUGUST 1995
Cole M A
Magnetometer and resistivity surveys were undetaken in southern part of Vespasian's Camp, an Iron Age hillfort near Amesbury, Wilthsire. A semi-circular feature 30m in diameter was discovered abutting the southern rampart and is perhaps the remains of a Bronze Age barrow. With the exception of the hillfort defences themselves, no other obviously archaeological features were detected although this does not preclude their existence. Also, interference from twentieth century activity dominated much of the surveyed area.

46/95 CAESAR'S CAMP, WINDSOR FOREST, BERKSHIRE REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, OCTOBER 1995
Linford N T
A survey of about 2ha of this Iron Age hillfort was conducted after the removal of dense pine needle litter and surface vegetation from a trial area within its interior. The aim of this clearance was to facilitate the reinstatement of the original heathland environment that thrived on the site prior to its utilisation for commercial afforestation during the 1950s. An archaeological evaluation, through both geophysical survey (reported upon here) and subsequent hand excavated test-pits, was requested to aid the interpretation of the monument and to amplify the results of a topographic survey conducted in 1989 by RCHME. Despite the particularly quiet response encountered the magnetometer survey has successfully indicated the presence of a number of potentially significant anomalies. The most obvious of these, a ditch-type anomaly inside the W ramparts, concurs with the location of linear earthworks identified during the topographic survey. The significance of a scatter of discrete pit-type anomalies is difficult to ascertain and the interpretation of these results will, no doubt, be clarified by the availability of subsequent test-pit evaluation data.

47/95 HOLLY HOUSE FARM, SCAFTWORTH. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, OCTOBER 1995.
Cole M A
Geophysical survey was undertaken over a square triple-ditched enclosure (SAM Notts 56) at Holly House Farm, Scaftworth, near Bawtry, Notts, in response to a request from the Humber Wetlands Project. Resistivity and magnetometer surveys were carried out in an attempt to map the locations of the enclosure ditches (evident as crop marks on APs), locate any entrances and identify any internal features. The site conditions were particularly well suited to resistivity survey which clearly detected the main ditches and provided some evidence of internal structures. Additionally, the magnetometer survey detected some signs of activity within the enclosure as well as mapping a possible annex to the south. Unfortunately, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the basis of either survey as to the function of the enclosure.

53/95 PARK FARM, SNETTISHAM, NORFOLK. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1995.
Linford P K
A geophysical survey on the site of the Roman villa at Park Farm near Snettisham, Norfolk, was requested by the landowner Mr E. Stanton, to improve the understanding of remains uncovered there during 1971-2. Although ground conditions made it impossible to detect traces of the villa building itself, evidence was found for possible associated activity. This included several putative defensive ditches and a number of anomalies almost certainly associated with iron working. A limited survey was also carried out at a second and unrelated site on the farm, thought to be the location of a medieval chapel. Results at this site were less clear but a possible wall footing was detected.

55/95 BASTON DROVE, THURLBY, LINCS. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH 1995.
Cole M A
Geophysical survey was undertaken at Baston Drove, Thurlby, Lincolnshire in response to a request from the Fenland Management Project (FMP). The aim of the survey was to assist with the interpretation of two trenches excavated by the FMP over concentrations of Romano-British material on the Fen Edge alongside the present course of the River Glen. A rectilinear pattern of enclosures was detected as well as a number of probable pits. Superimposed on these were a large number of very intense positive magnetic anomalies of a form and magnitude normally associated with thermoremanent magnetic features such as kilns or hearths. A test pit was subsequently hand-excavated over one of these anomalies and revealed that the magnetometer was apparently responding to a naturally-occurring iron-rich deposit, possibly an iron pan. The intensity of the magnetism associated with these deposits remains unexplained, however, although it is possible that a chemical remanence has been acquired during their formation. Further laboratory work is currently being undertaken to investigate the magnetic character of these deposits. The results of these endeavours will be reported upon in due course.

58/95 EYE HILL FARM, SOHAM, CAMBS. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, NOVEMBER 1995.
Cole M A & David A E U
Magnetometer and magnetic susceptibility survey of some 4.5 hectares of a later prehistoric lithic scatter was undertaken at Eye Hill Farm, Soham, Cambs. Whilst most of the area was magnetically undisturbed, or interrupted only by modern features, some very limited and dispersed evidence of archaeological activity was identified. There does not appear to be a significant correlation between topsoil magnetic susceptibility and the distributions of burnt or unburnt flint.

59/95 HINXTON QUARRY, HINXTON, CAMBRIDGESHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1995
Linford P K
During an excavation at Hinxton Quarry, undertaken by the Cambridgeshire Archaeological Unit prior to borrow pitting for gravel extraction, an iron Age cemetery containing eight cremation burials was discovered, near the south eastern edge of the excavated area. The Ancient Monuments Laboratory was asked to carry out a geophysical survey in farmland adjacent to the excavation to determine whether the cemetery continued into the neighbouring field. Unfortunately, conditions at the site were not particularly favourable for the detection of the subtle anomalies usually produced by these types of remains and it was not possible to conclusively deduce whether or not the cemetery continued into the surveyed field. Nevertheless, a number of pit-like anomalies were detected in another part of the field which exhibited properties characteristic of deliberate burning.

2/96 FEN FARM, PINCHBECK, LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JANUARY 1994.
Cole M A
Geophysical survey was undertaken over a Middle Iron Age site at Fen Farm, Pinchbeck, Lincs., in response to a request from the Fenland Management Project (FMP). The survey, undertaken whilst a FMP excavation was in progress, was intended to place any excavated features in their wider context. Although failing to detect any obvious features adjacent to the excavation, the magnetometer survey did map a rectilinear field system of probable Roman origin. The magnetometer results support the evidence from the excavation which suggests that the site is unlikely to have been in the immediate vicinity of a contemporary settlement.

4/96 LOWER FARM, NUNEHAM COURTENAY, OXON. INTERIM REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS, 1992-4.
Cole M A
This interim report summarises the results of the magnetometer surveys undertaken during 1992-4 by the Ancient Monuments Laboratory over a major Roman industrial site discovered during the laying of a water main at Lower Farm, Nuneham Courtenay, Oxon. In total an area of nearly 10ha has now been surveyed and a detailed plan of Roman enclosures, kilns and trackways has been revealed with great clarity. The suitablility of the underlying Jurassic geology in affording highly informative results from magnetometer survey has been amply demonstrated. These results, combined with OAU field walking data, clearly indicate that the site has not as yet been fully delimited and that the archaeological activity, which includes both a prehistoric and medieval component, extends well beyond the eastern edge of the surveyed area. Further survey work, allied to more comprehensive interpretation, and publication is anticipated.

5/96 COCKS FARM ROMAN VILLA, ABINGER, SURREY. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1995.
Linford N T
A limited magnetometer survey was conducted at Cocks Farm Roman villa to complement the resistivity and topsoil magnetic susceptibility results collected by the Surrey Archaeological Society. It was hoped that the application of geophysical techniques would augment the results of the Society's recent excavations at this site. The magnetometer survey successfully detected a number of linear anomalies, although the quality of the data does not support a wholly conclusive interpretation. This report provides an interim summary of both the magnetometer and resistivity surveys prior to more detailed analysis of the data within the excavation report.

31/96 WESTWOODSIDE, HUMBERSIDE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH 1996.
Cole M A
Magnetic surveys were undertaken at Westwoodside, Humberside, in response to a request from the Humber Wetlands Project. Their aim was to investigate surface finds of prehistoric material (including 3 bronze socketed axes, a flint tranchet axe, a dolerite axe, and many flints). It was hoped that the survey would map any subsurface features associated with these finds and thereby identify a site for consideration for scheduling by the Monuments Protection Programme of English Heritage. Despite a generally subdued magnetic response, a limited number of potentially significant features were located. Additionally, a possible focus of activity is suggested by a zone of heightened magnetic response and a corresponding enhancement of topsoil magnetic susceptibility.

43/96 HAGNABY LOCK, STICKFORD, LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1994.
Cole M A
A geophysical survey was undertaken over a scatter of Bronze Age pottery, flint and burnt cobbles at Hagnaby Lock, Stickford, Lincolnshire, in response to a request from the Fenland Management Project (FMP). It was hoped that the survey would locate any buried archaeological features and thus aid the location of FMP trial trenches. Unfortunately, poor weather conditions limited the area available for survey and only a few features of archaelogical potential were located. Upon excavation none of these appeared to correlate with obviously archaeological features.

49/96 MOHUN CASTLE, SOUTH PERROT, DORSET
Cole M A
Resistivity survey was undertaken at Mohun Castle, South Perrot, Dorset, in an attempt to locate any surviving buried features associated with the former castle within part of the scheduled area to the south of St Mary's Church. This was necessary because the Parrett and Axe Parish Council were considering extending the graveyard of the church in this direction. The site conditions proved well suited to the technique and a range of features were located both within and outside the surviving parts of the castle moat. Of these, a number from within the moated area are of likely archaeological significance whilst a number of features beyond, including a possible drainage system, are of less certain, but possibly more recent, origin.

70/96 HINTON ST MARY, DORSET. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JULY 1996
Payne A
Resistivity and magnetometer surveys were carried out at Hinton St Mary, Dorset, to provide detailed information about the immediate setting of an important 4th-century Roman mosaic unearthed in 1963. Previous excavation at the site had only provided a partial indication of the true pattern of the Roman remains. Further information was now required in order to assist site management. The survey succesfully revealed evidence for a substantial complex of buried building remains and ditched features - mainly in the scheduled area (SAM Dorset 711) but also extending outside it. The character of the Roman remains can now be more fully appreciated and this will enable improved management and interpretation of the site in the future.

71/96 THE ABBEY OF ST. BENET AT HOLM, HORNING, NORFOLK, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1996
Linford P
A geophysical survey was carried out on the site of the Abbey of St. Benet at Holm near Horning in Norfolk in August 1996 at the request of the English Heritage regional Inspector of Ancient Monuments. The site has suffered badly from erosion due to flooding of the adjacent river Bure and it was proposed that flood defences on the river bank be rebuilt. Thus, the survey was requested to detect archaeological features near the river that might be affected by the work and to improve understanding of this large and complex medieval abbey site. Unfortunately, owing to the extremely dry conditions pertaining at the time of the survey, results from the site were not good and little unequivocal evidence for the remains of buildings associated with the abbey has been recovered. However, a number of linear anomalies were detected in the resistivity survey that may be caused by buried wall footings and these have been mapped on an earlier topographic survey by the RCHME.

77/96 FAWLER ROMAN VILLA, OXON. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, NOVEMBER 1996.
Cole M
Geophysical survey was undertaken at Fawler Roman Villa, Oxon, (SAM OX 73) in response to a request from the Monuments Protection Programme (MPP) of English Heritage. The scheduled status of the site is currently under revision and it was felt that more infomation regarding the nature and extent of any surviving buried archaeological features was required for this to be carried out effectively. Magnetic and resistivity surveys were undertaken, both successfully illustrating the presence of buried archaeological features within the currently scheduled area. In addition, clear evidence of features extending beyond the latter to the west was provided by the magnetometer survey. Unfortunately it is not possible to confidently attribute any of the detected features to a particular period based on the geophysical evidence alone. However, the sustained Roman activity identified by excavation at the site certainly suggests that many of the features revealed by the geophysical survey are likely to Roman in origin.

2/97 HAMSTEAD MARSHALL, BERKSHIRE, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS, 1996.
Linford N
Geophysical survey was conducted over three areas of the extensive archaeological landscape at Hamstead Marshall, Newbury, Berks., to examine the correlation between medieval features and the later re-modelling of the site into a 17th-century manor house and formal gardens. A combination of earth resistance and magnetic techniques were applied, with varied success, possibly conditioned by the change in geology from well drained plateau gravel over the higher ground to heavier clay as the site descends into the Kennet valley. The survey of the formal garden site confirmed the suitability of geophysical techniques for the location of ephemeral garden features and a plethora of anomalies were identified that augmented other available data sources. New evidence for the existence of an extensive drainage system throughout the formal garden site was reveled together with a more tentative identification of a series of tree planting pits over the area of the DMV.

14/97 THE DESERTED MEDIEVAL VILLAGE AT THOMLEY, OXFORDSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, FEBRUARY 1997
Cole M
Magnetometer and resistance surveys were carried out at the site of the deserted medieval village of Thomley, Oxon in February 1997. They were conducted as a pilot investigation to assess the efficacy of these techniques in detecting any surviving buried remains at the site. In general, the site conditions did not prove well suited to geophysical survey, although some useful evidence of buried archaeological features was recorded.

81/97 CALLESTICK VEOR, CORNWALL, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JULY 1997
Linford, N.
A magnetometer survey was conducted at Callestick Veor, Cornwall, in response to a request from the Cornwall Archaeological Unit to investigate archaeological activity in the vicinity of the known 'round' enclosure at the site. The specific aim of the survey was to provide a broader context for the limited geophysical survey and excavation results obtained from the W of the monument prior to the construction of the Engelly to Sevenstonemile section of the Cornwall Spine Water Main. Despite the interference caused by the presence of the water pipeline a wealth of significant magnetic anomalies were revealed. Whilst the majority of these anomalies are associated with the 'round' enclosure there is tentative evidence for the presence of further Bronze Age dwellings.

95/97 CANSFORD QUARRY, CORNWALL, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Linford N
A magnetometer survey was conducted at Cansford Quarry, Otterham, Cornwall, in response to a request from the Inspector of Ancient Monuments to investigate archaeological activity in the vicinity of three Bronze Age Barrows. Topographic anomalies over the site suggested the possibility of three additional monuments, but the survey failed to reveal any significant magnetic response to these areas. A pattern of intense linear anomalies dominated much of the survey area and is attributed to either a recent agricultural effect or to natural geological variation.

3/98 LONG BARROW 495c, SHEPHERDS SHORE, WILTSHIRE REPORT ON A GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY NOVEMBER 1997
Bray E
Magnetometer and resistivity surveys were carried out over long barrow 495c, Shepherds Shore, Wiltshire, in response to a rescheduling proposal by the Monuments Protection Programme. The aim of the survey was to verify the presence or absence of flanking ditches to aid determination of whether the current scheduled area was sufficient. Both survey methods clearly revealed the presence of previously unrecognised ditches and showed that the monument is significantly larger than formerly documented.

5/98 OLD WARDOUR CASTLE, WILTSHIRE, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1997
Linford N
Earth resistance survey was conducted at both 0.5m and 1.0m mobile probe spacings at Old Wardour Castle, Wiltshire, to assist Historic Properties (SW) with development proposals at the site. Unfortunately , interpretation of the survey data was hampered by areas of disturbance possibly related to either the location of former out-buildings within the bailey or landscaping associated with the 18th century formal garden. the survey did, however, identify a number of anomalies apparently related to the original design of this garden. Further geophysical survey is not recommended until ambiguous anomalies withtin the current data set can be investigated through trial excavation.

6/98 STENCOOSE FARM, CORNWALL REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JULY 1997
Linford N
A magnetometer survey was conducted at Stencoose Farm, Cornwall, in response to a request from the Cornwall Archaeological Unit to investigate archaeological activity in the vicinity of a recently excavated Iron Age or Romano-British structure. The specific aim of the survey was to provide a broader context for the limited geophysical survey and excavation results obtained prior to the construction of the Sevenmilestone to North Country section of the Cornwall Spine Water Main. Whilst many significant magnetic anomalies were revealed, the fragmentation of the survey by the pipeline corridor and existing field boundaries into four separate areas has hampered the interpretation of the data.

10/98 SUTTON FARM, SUTTON-UPON-DERWENT, N. YORKSHIRE REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1997
Bray E
A magnetometer survey was carried out over an area SE of Sutton Farm, N. Yorkshire for inclusion in the Humber Wetlands Project. The aim was to identify archaeological features associated with Roman and Medieval pottery surface finds at the site. Topsoil samples were also taken for measurement of magnetic susceptibility. The data collected provides clear evidence of an enclosure system around a central roadway, and some ridge and furrow activity. The measured magnetic susceptibility samples correlated well with the areas of archaeological activity.

14/98 GIANT HILL, THORGANBY GRANGE, N. YORKSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1997
Bray E
A magnetometer survey was carried out over Giant Hill, Thorganby Grange, N. Yorkshire, for inclusion in the Humber Wetlands Project. The aim was to search for any buried archaeological features associated with the extant earthwork, believed to date no later than the 11th century AD. The data yielded disappointing results, dominated by a system of modern drains, and showed few archaeological anomalies.

27/98 CROWLINK ROUND BARROW, E. SUSSEX, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1998
Linford N
A geophysical survey was conducted over the location of a suspected Bronze Age round barrow at Crowlink, E. Sussex threatened by coastal erosion of the chalk cliff on which it sits. Magnetic survey of the site successfully revealed a series of significant anomalies related to associated barrows to the N and a two-phase pattern of field systems. Unfortunately, the response in the immediate vicinity of the threatened barrow was obscured by the presence of intense magnetic disturbance possibly related to wartime activity at the site. A more limited earth resistance survey was also undertaken and revealed additional anomalies apparently related to the raised mound of the barrow.

28/98 SITE OF ELLERTON PRIORY, ELLERTON ON DERWENT, HUMBERSIDE, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1997
Bray E
A geophysical survey was carried out over the site of Ellerton Priory, Humberside, following a request from the Carstairs Countryside Trust. Further to a previous survey in 1995, the aims were to obtain a fuller picture of the extent of the Priory remains. It was found that extensive archaeological remains, which may include hearths and minor industrial activity, are present in the area.

40/98 WESSEX BOWL BARROW PROJECT. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Bray E
The aim of the Wessex Bowl Barrow Project, funded by English Heritage, is to investigate the state of preservation of plough-damaged Bronze Age barrows to inform future policy for their conservation. As a preliminary step, routine geophysical survey was undertaken over a sample of 9 sites in order to provide evidence of the survival and location of archaeological features. Only one barrow-like feature was successfully located, at Site 5. Other anomalies of interest included one generated by a square-shaped feature at Site 1, and a large amorphous anomaly at Site 10. Neither are likely to be barrows. Various other minor features of possible archaeological origin were found at several of the sites. The lack of positive geophysical identification of barrows is unlikely to be due to geological conditions: either they have been totally eliminated from the landscape by cultivation or the original locational information was in error.

50/98 LANERCOST PRIORY, CUMBRIA. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MAY 1992
Payne A
Geophysical survey was carried out at Lanercost Priory to inform the preparation of an analytical record of the monastic remains, partly in the care of English Heritage. Resistivity survey was employed in four separate areas of the monastic precinct, and a more limited magnetometer survey was carried out over a test area to the east of the remains of the Chapter House. There are wide differences in the background resistance over the site and this undulating response probably reflects variability of the local drift geology (conditioned by the river valley location in a heavily glaciated zone of the country) rather than the presence of archaeological features (which would be expected to produce anomalies of a less irregular form). More promising indications of buried walls, flooring or rubble were found extending south from the east claustral range and the cellarium (with refectory over) on the south side of the Priory. These anomalies may represent missing buildings of the monastic layout such as the kitchens and latrines. In addition, various low resistance anomalies were mapped within the Outer Court area, some of which relate to modern paths, while others may represent archaeological features of uncertain form possibly associated with the medieval Priory. Sections of a possible boundary defining the limit of the monastic precinct have perhaps been detected as high and low resistance linear anomalies in the far western and eastern areas of the survey. The magnetometer data suggests the possible presence of small- scale industrial activity in the south-eastern area of the monastic precinct, although to what period this belongs is unknown.

53/98 ECTON HILL, DERBYSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JUNE 1998
Bray E
Magnetometer surveys were carried out over two areas on Ecton Hill, Derbyshire, to find evidence of industrial activity associated with local Bronze Age copper mining. Although various anomalies were detected none of these can be conclusively linked with prehistoric ore extraction.

56/98 INNER BAILEY, SCARBOROUGH CASTLE, N. YORKSHIRE: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JULY 1998
Bray E and David A
A geophysical survey was carried out over the inner bailey area of Scarborough Castle, North Yorkshire. Both resistivity and magnetic methods yielded significant anomalies suggestive of buildings and other features, but the interpretation of these, and any specific internal patterning, is problematic.

2/99 BEERWAY FARM, SHAPWICK, SOMERSET, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY 1996
Linford P and Cole M
A geophysical survey was carried out over Church Field at Beerway Farm, Shapwick in Somerset at the request of the Shapwick Project to extend previous geophysical survey work carried out there. The magnetometer results detected a complex palimpsest of archaeological anomalies from both Roman and medieval periods including the remains of the original church at Shapwick, which existed between the 8th- and 14th- centuries AD. Complementary archaeological evidence gathered by the Project helped to interpret the anomalies visible in the survey results.

14/99 HEMYOCK CASTLE, HEMYOCK, DEVON. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, FEBRUARY 1999
Martin L
A resistivity survey was conducted over an area of approximately 0.1ha that was believed to contain the remains of the western curtain wall and other associated features at Hemyock Castle, Hemyock, Devon. These features had failed to be conclusively identified in an earlier architectural survey incorporating limited excavations. The geophysical survey revealed a number of significant high resistance anomalies believed to be related to the curtain wall and perhaps an interval tower or western entrance. However, there is some discrepancy between the positions of these anomalies and predictions from excavation. The geophysical response is difficult to interpret on account of the topography of the site and recent levelling.

19/99 COPPER HALL FARM, SKERNE, E. RIDING. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1998.
Linford N
A magnetometer survey was conducted over an area of ~5.5ha containing a series of linear crop marks to the W of the river Hull where previous excavation had revealed a well preserved Viking age structure interpreted as a bridging point. Whilst the geophysical survey successfully identified a number of significant anomalies correlation between these and the AP evidence was poor. No further suggestion towards the date of this activity or an association with the bridging point was provided by the survey.

20/99 WHITEHALL FARM, KELK, E. RIDING. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1998
Linford N
A magnetometer survey was conducted over an area of 2.9ha containing cropmarks at Whitehall Farm, Kelk, East Riding and revealed a number of significant anomalies associated with a rectilinear enclosure of probable Roman date. This enclosure contained a group of apparently thermoremanent anomalies which may well represent some form of semi-industrial activity, such as pottery production. No evidence for the location of the reported `lake dwelling' was found during the survey due, perhaps, to the subdued magnetic response over the lower lying wetland areas of the site noted in both the gradiometer data and values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility.

27/99 ADLINGFLEET, LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1996 AND SEPTEMBER 1998
Cole M and Cottrell P
Magnetometer and resistance surveys were undertaken near Adlingfleet, Lincolnshire, in response to a request from the Humber Wetlands Project (HWP). An extensive spread of Roman material, including some Samian Ware, had been collected during an HWP field walking assessment of the Ancholme and lower Trent valleys near to the confluence of the Rivers Trent and Ouse. The geophysical survey carried out in 1996 successfully located a number of surviving archaeological features, including clear evidence of industrial activity, and thereby assisted the location of HWP assessment trenches. Further survey in 1998, to the north of the original area, located more magnetic anomalies of a similar type and intensity to those detected in the 1996 survey.

37/99 TOWER HILL, ASHBURY, OXON. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH 1993.
Linford N
A magnetometer survey was conducted over an 0.8ha area centred on the location of late Bronze Age hoard of copper alloy objects recovered at Tower Hill, Ashbury, Oxfordshire. It was suggested that the finds may have formed part of a metal worker's hoard and may possibly have been associated with metal working activity at the site. Unfortunately, neither the magnetometer data nor the results from a 2.5ha topsoil magnetic susceptibility survey provided any significant anomalies to substantiate these assumptions or to aid subsequent excavation of the site.

38/99 CHURCH FARM, ASHINGTON, W. SUSSEX. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH 1999
Martin L
A geophysical survey was conducted over the location of Roman building remains discovered by limited excavation in 1947 at Church Farm, Ashington, W. Sussex. Magnetometry, resistivity and magnetic susceptibility all indicated an area of intense activity corresponding approximately with the known location of remains. Some evidence of contemporary field ditches was also found. However, the geophysical response was difficult to interpret and no firm limit to the site was identified.

40/99 ABBEY LANDS FARM, WHITBY, NORTH YORKSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, APRIL 1999.
Martin, L.
A geophysical survey was conducted over part of the Anglian Enclosure to the east of Abbey Lands Farm at Whitby Abbey, Whitby, North Yorkshire. Magnetometry and resistivity surveys were used at a higher resolution than on previous occasions at this site but were nonetheless unable to detect satisfactorily the presence or pattern of the many features predicted by previous trial excavation.

15/2000 MARSHCHAPEL, LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1999
Martin L
The geophysical survey of two sites near the village of Marshchapel, Lincolnshire, successfully detected the remains of probable occupation and industrial activity. The latter was particularly apparent in the field named Burnt Mound, where evidence for thermoremanent structures and enclosures was detected. The second field exhibited much weaker magnetisation but was nevertheless shown to contain concentrations of buried features near a former palaeo-channel; field walking evidence here implies a Roman date.

16/2000 BUTTERBUMP BARROWS,LINCOLNSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 1999
Martin L
Magnetometer survey was conducted over the location of the seven barrows recorded by the Ordnance Survey at Butterbump Round Barrow Cemetery, Lincolnshire, in advance of trial excavations by the Humber Wetlands Project. Three barrows were identified by very unusual negative anomalies corresponding with their ring ditches and it is surmised that the latter may therefore be infilled with peat. At least two of the barrows contained central magnetic disturbances, but it is unclear whether these are contemporary features or more recent evidence of excavations. Although some other possibly significant anomalies were located the presence or absence of other barrows in the group could not be confirmed.

31/2000 ETAL CASTLE, ETAL, NORTHUMBERLAND, REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, 1988
Linford P
A geophysical survey was carried out at Etal Castle in Northumberland in an attempt to locate remains of a putative fourth tower suggested by the topography of the site. An excavation in the 1970s had previously been attempted in the most likely position but had found no traces of wall footings for such a tower. The geophysical survey results did not produce unequivocal evidence for a fourth tower but did detect another possible location for it along the north east boundary of the castle site, as well as finding the probable location of the excavation.

36/2000 LING HOWE LONG BARROW, WALKINGTON
Linford P
A geophysical survey was carried out at the site of the long barrow of Ling Howe near Walkington, Humberside to complement information obtained from an excavation by John Dent in 1984. Magnetometer and resistivity surveys successfully detected the long barrow's side ditches which had already been noted as cropmarks. Three pit-type anomalies were also detected within the barrow and one of these had a fill that was magnetically similar to the side ditches possibly suggesting that it originated at a similar date in the past.

43/2000 GREYFRIARS, DUNWICH, SUFFOLK. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH/APRIL 1994
Linford P
Coastal erosion at the village of Dunwich in Suffolk has led to the precinct of the Franciscan priory of Greyfriars being threatened with collapse into the sea. For this reason a geophysical survey of the site was requested to help assess the quality of the archaeological resource under threat and develop a strategy for excavation. Whilst conditions were not ideal for detecting buried masonry, many anomalies were detected that were likely to have been caused by the buried remains of medieval structures. Whilst the area covered by these anomalies reveals the priory to have been a substantial establishment, it was not possible to obtain a clear plan of the buildings.

49/2000 BIGNOR ROMAN VILLA, WEST SUSSEX. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS, OCTOBER 1998 AND MAY 1999
Martin L and Linford N
An earth resistance survey was conducted over the location of Roman building remains at Bignor Roman Villa, West Sussex, in October 1998, in advance of excavation by the University College London Field Archaeology Unit. Following this initial visit a further survey was conducted in May 1999 to field test a Pulse Ekko Ground Penetrating Radar and a Scintrex Smartmag caesium magnetometer. In addition a small geometric mosaic, currently threatened by apparent subsidence, was surveyed with the GPR to establish whether a hypocaust may survive beneath the undisturbed floor level. It was hoped that this information would assist with the on going conservation of this mosaic.

53/2000 FULLERTON ROMAN SITE, HAMPSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, FEBRUARY 2000
Martin L and Payne A
A geophysical survey was carried out around a previously excavated Roman building situated in the valley of the River Ann near Fullerton, Hampshire. The purpose of the survey was to explore for additional associated features such as out-buildings and also to recover the position of previously recorded features interpreted as a water mill and leat. An extensive fluxgate magnetometer survey located a large rectangular enclosure surrounding the Roman building and containing possible additional structures. A linear anomaly may represent the supposed leat and a cluster of anomalies nearby might be the location of a mill. More limited resistivity survey added little further definite information.

55/2000 BISHOP'S PALACE GARDEN, PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL, CAMBRIDGESHIRE REPORT ON RESISTIVITY SURVEY, SEPTEMBER 1996
Payne A
A resistivity survey was carried out over the south lawn of the Bishop's Garden in the grounds of Peterborough Cathedral in an attempt to resolve the course of the western boundary of the Anglo-Saxon burh. Even over the small 60x20m area investigated, there was considerable variation in the measured resistance and a number of anomalies possibly indicative of artificial structures were located. Of these a distinct high resistance linear anomaly is in a position and orientation coinciding with the expected course of the western section of the burghal defences.

65/2000 SILCHESTER ROMAN TOWN, HAMPSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MARCH 2000
Martin L
Magnetometer survey was conducted over the central area of Silchester Roman Town (Calleva Atrebatum) as part of investigations into the site by Reading University. The magnetic response was good and negative anomalies in particular have indicated the remains of the street pattern as well as several buildings - including the forum-basilica and a Romano-Celtic temple. Although not adding radically to existing knowledge of the lay-out of the town, the survey has provided valuable additional detail, complementing and extending upon information from previous excavation and aerial photography.

76/2000 ELSYNG PALACE, ENFIELD, LONDON. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, SEPTEMBER 2000.
Linford N
A trial ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted over the site of the former Tudor Palace, Elsyng, London Borough of Enfield, following successful earth resistance and magnetic surveys. A number of significant anomalies were identified in the GPR profiles that were interpreted as reflections from buried walls and drainage conduits associated with the former palace. However, due to the limited area of the GPR survey amplitude time slices created from this data failed to provide convincing evidence for the location of the 1963-7 excavation trenches.

9/2001 SILCHESTER ROMAN TOWN, HAMPSHIRE: REPORT ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR SURVEY, MARCH 2000
Linford, N
A trial Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was conducted over a previously excavated Romano-Celtic temple and its surroundings in the central area of Silchester Roman Town (Calleve Atrebatum), Hampshire. Amplitude time slices created from the GPR data revealed a plethora of anomalies related to the original street pattern, several buildings and the remains of the temple. In addition, the GPR data allows the apparent vertical stratigraphy of the anomalies to be estimated and indicates the varying, near surface, preservation of the temple. The GPR data further complements information on the site recovered through excavation, aerial photography and a more extensive magnetometer survey.

14/2001 THE BULL RING, DOVE HOLES, DERBYSHIRE: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, SEPTEMBER 2000
Martin, L
A geophysical survey was carried out within the henge monument known as The Bull Ring in Dove Holes, Derbyshire. Both high resolution magnetometer and resistivity surveys were conducted, but neither revealed any trace of internal structures. The magnetic survey was hampered by modern disturbance, precluding the identification of even the known archaeology. The resistance survey was rather more successful, but did not conclusively reveal any further prehistoric features.

20/2001 TWO LONG BARROWS, Nr AVEBURY, WILTSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, DECEMBER 2000.
Martin, L
Magnetometer surveys were conducted over the South Street and Horslip long barrows, near Avebury, Wiltshire in order to locate them accurately on the ground in advance of their removal from cultivation. Although a response was recorded to the ditches at both sites, the magnetisation of these features was quite weak and few other significant anomalies were recorded.

27/2001 BURNFOOT FARM, LONGTOWN, CUMBRIA: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, AUGUST 2001.
Linford P and Linford N
Following the discovery of a Roman altar capital in about 1970 during gravel excavations on the banks of the River Esk near Longtown in Cumbria, a geophysical survey was carried out to try and establish whether crop marks visible in the adjacent field at Burnfoot Farm might be related to Roman occupation in the area. Unfortunately, only a very few anomalies were detected and it was not clear whether they relate to the crop marks. It is probable that this lack of success was due to the alluvial nature of the site.

30/2001 RICHBOROUGH AMPHITHEATRE, KENT: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS, FEBRUARY 2001
Martin, L
Magnetic, earth resistance and electro-magnetic surveys were conducted over a total area of approx. 2.4ha over the site of the amphitheatre at Richborough, Kent, in an attempt to evaluate the use of these methods at this site and to define and de-limit the underlying structural remains. All the techniques responded well. The earth resistance data, in particular, indicates the buried features to be well preserved and of a much greater extent and complexity than recorded during antiquarian excavations in 1849.

35/2001 BOXGROVE PRIORY, WEST SUSSEX: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY MAY 2001
Martin, L and Linford, P
Magnetometer and earth resistance surveys were conducted over a toatl area of approx. 0.15ha on the site of the claustral buildings at Boxgrove Priory, West Sussex, in an attempt to locate and define any underlying structural remains. The resistivity survey provided the best results, indicating the location of what id thought to have been the Brewhouse and several rubble spreads, all of which are likely to be fairly near the surface.

78/2001 THE WEST KENNET LONG BARROW, WILTSHIRE: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JANUARY 2001
Martin, L
A magnetometer survey of approximately 3.5 hectares was carried out around West Kennet long barrow, Wiltshire. It was hoped that the ditches and any associated features would be defined and located. The survey successfully identified the barrow ditches, but no other directly related responses. Some possible pits were located in dispersed groups to the east of the mound, and a large anomaly was recorded some 45m to the south of the barrow. The relationship of these various features to the barrow remains uncertain but would be worth further investigation.

80/2001 ARBOR LOW, DERBYSHIRE: REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, AUGUST 1998
Martin, L
A geophysical survey was carried out around the henge monument at Arbor Low and the nearby barrow at Gib Hill. In both the magnetometer and resistance surveys several known features such as the henge ditch and linear dyke were identified; however the response from the underlying geology has been significant. Unfortunately no new features such as stone or even timber post settings were detected. The resistivity survey conducted around the mound at Gib Hill proved to be too limited to comprehend any significant contemporary features.

Unnumbered BECKHAMPTON, Nr AVEBURY, WILTS. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, MAY 1999
David A
High resolution magnetometer and resistivity surveys were undertaken during May 1999 in Longstones Field, Beckhampton, to re-locate features detected by previous geophysical surveys and aerial photography, in advance of excavation later in 1999. The resistivity survey located four anomalies which, if indicative of former stone positions, could be interpreted as comprising a part of the supposed Beckhampton Avenue. Magnetometer survey over the same area was inconclusive, but re-processing and re-examination of previous survey data (1989), which covered a wider area, has revealed the intermittent course of a cropmark circuit photographed in 1997.

Unnumbered LAKE DOWN, NEAR WILSFORD, WILTSHIRE. REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY OF THREE POND BARROWS, MARCH 1996
Cole M
Magnetometer and resistivity surveys successfully mapped the barrows revealing a number of significant features. Analysis of the resistivity data and GPR profiles suggests that the underlying solid chalk is close to the surface at the centre of the barrows which in turn suggests that shafts are unlikely to be present.


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