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MONUMENT CLASS DESCRIPTIONS

Introduction

The Monument Class Description (MCD) is a key tool in the Monuments Protection Programme's evaluation method, in some cases supported by thresholds for helping to define national importance on the basis for example of rarity, archaeological potential and vulnerability. The Monument Class Descriptions set out a synthesis of current knowledge and should always be regarded as provisional; they will be subject to change through time as new data come to light and further research and synthesis are undertaken. The group of circa 225 Monument Class Descriptions which have been prepared is still being expanded. One of the aims of its dissemination as a World Wide Web document is to facilitate its expansion, and further enhancement.

The illustrations used are taken from English Heritage sources, where available and subject to copyright. Where figure references have been made to other sources, the references have been included to aid further research.

For More information on the Monument Class Descriptions and their aims follow the link to Notes and Guidance.

Early Prehistoric Monuments
Bronze Age Monuments.
Iron Age Monuments.
Roman Monuments
Early Medieval Monuments.
Medieval Monuments.
Post Medieval Monuments.

Prehistoric Monuments

This Chronological period group has been subdivided into Early Prehistoric, Bronze Age, and Iron Age sub groups to allow easier accessing for the user. However this has lead to a duplication of some links for monument classes, which have been shown to span two or more of these chronological and typological groupings, thus in order to distinguish them, these links have been flagged "(MP)" indicating that they are Multi-Period Monument Classes.


Early Prehistoric Monuments

Avenues(MP)
Bank Barrows(MP)
Bowl Barrows(MP)
Causewayed Enclosures
Concentric Stone Circles
Cup and Ring Marked Stones (MP)
Cursus
D-Shaped Barrows.
Enclosed Cremation Cemeteries. (MP)
Entrance Graves (MP)
Flint Mines
Four Poster Stone Circles (MP)
Henge Enclosures
Henges
Hengi-Form Monuments
Inhumation Cemeteries (Prehistoric) (MP)
Large Irregular Stone Circles (MP)
Large Regular Stone Circles (MP)
Long Barrows
Long Mortuary Enclosures
Long Mounds.
Monumental Mounds
Oval Barrows
Pit Circles
Pond Barrows
Round Barrow Cemeteries (MP)
Simple Passage Graves.
Standing Stones (MP)
Stone Alignments (MP)
Stone Axe Factories (MP)
Timber Circles.
Tor Cairns

Bronze Age

Avenues (MP)
Bank Barrows (MP)
Bell Barrows
Bowl Barrows(MP)
Burnt Mounds
Cairnfields
Clothes Line Enclosures (MP)
Coaxial Field Systems (MP)
Cross Dykes (MP)
Cup and Ring Marked Stones (MP)
Enclosed Cremation Cemeteries. (MP)
Entrance Graves (MP)
Fancy Barrows
Four Poster Stone Circles (MP)
Hill Figures (MP)
Hilltop Enclosures (MP)
Inhumation Cemeteries (MP)
Irregular Aggregate Field Systems (MP)
Itford Hill Style Settlements.
Large Irregular Stone Circles (MP)
Large Regular Stone Circles (MP)
Linear Earthworks (MP)
Martin Down Style Enclosures
Multiple Enclosure Forts (MP)
Rams Hill Style Enclosures
Regular Aggregate Field Systems(MP)
Ring Cairns
Round Barrow Cemeteries (MP)
Springfield Style Enclosures (MP)
Standing Stones (MP)
Stone Alignments(MP)
Stone Circles - Small
Stone Hut Circles
Unenclosed Bronze Age Urnfields

Iron Age

Banjo Enclosures
Cliff Castles
Clothes Line Enclosures (MP)
Coaxial Field Systems (MP)
Cross Dykes (MP)
Enclosed Oppida
Gussage Style Settlements
Hill Figures (MP)
Hilltop Enclosures (MP)
Inhumation Cemeteries (MP)
Irregular Aggregate Field Systems (MP)
Irregular Open Field Systems (MP)
Large Multivallate Hillforts
Large Univallate Hillforts
Later Prehistoric Ports
Linear Earthworks (MP)
Multiple Ditch Systems
Multiple Enclosure Forts (MP)
Regular Aggregate Field Systems (MP)
Romano-Celtic Temples (MP)
Rounds (MP)
Springfield Style Enclosures (MP)
Standing Stones (MP)
Slight Univallate Hillforts
Small Multivallate Hillforts
Square Barrows
Unenclosed iron Age Urnfields
Viereckschanzen (MP)
Wooton Hill Style Enclosures

Roman Monuments

Aggregate Villages (R-B)
Amphitheatres. (R-B)
Basilican Temples (R-B)
Bridges (R-B)
Canals (R-B)
Cemeteries (R-B)
Classical Temples
Courtyard Houses.
Cross Dykes (MP)
Curtain Frontier Works (R-B)
Extraction Pits.
Farmsteads (R-B)
Fort-Vici (R-B)
Harbours (R-B)
Ironworks
Irregula+r Aggregate Field Systems (MP)
Irregular Enclosed Field Systems (MP)
Irregular Open Field Systems (MP)
Major Villas.
Mausolea (R-B)
Mines
Pharoi
Potteries
Quarries (R-B)
Regular Aggregate Field Systems
Roads (R-B)
Romano-Celtic Temples (MP)
Roman Fishponds
Roman Fortlets.
Roman Fortresses
Roman Forts
Rounds (MP)
Romano-British Lime Kilns
Romano-British Mansiones
Romano-British Salterns
Saxon Shore Forts
Signal Stations
Vineyards (MP)
Viereckschanzen (MP)
Watermills (R-B)

Early Medieval Monuments

Animal Pounds.
Aristocratic Residences (Saxon)
Barrow Fields
Coaxial Field Systems (MP)
Colleges (MP)
Cremation Cemeteries (A-S)
Cross Dykes (MP)
Double Houses (Pre-Conquest)
Gate, Bridge and Causeway Chapels (MP)
Hermitages (MP)
High Crosses
Hlaews
Inhumation Cemeteries.(A-S)
Irregular Enclosed Field Systems (MP)
Irregular Open Field Systems (MP)
Monastic Granges (MP)
Moots (MP)
Nuneries (MP)
Palaces.(A-S)
Parish Churches (MP)
Shrines (Post-Roman) (MP)
Vineyards (MP)

Medieval Monuments

Almshouses (MP)
Aqueducts (Med)
Archery Butts. (MP)
Artillery Castles (MP)
Bastles (MP)
Beacons (MP)
Blockhouses (MP)
Brickworks (Med)
Camerae
Chain Towers (MP)
Charterhouses
Clapper Bridges (MP)
Cockpits (MP)
Coastal Fish Weirs (MP)
Colleges (MP)
Cottages (MP)
Coureries
Cross Dykes (MP)
Decoy Ponds (MP)
Deerparks (MP)
Double Houses (Post-Conquest)
Dovecotes (MP)
Earthen Artillery Defences (MP)
Enclosure Castles
Field Barns (MP)
Field Works (MP)
Fishponds (MP)
Friaries
Frontier Works
Glassworks.
Hermitages (MP)
Hospitals (MP)
Ironworks
Irregular Enclosed Field Systems (MP)
Limekilns
Magnates Residences
Moats
Motte and Bailey Castles
Motte Castles
Monasteries- male (Postconquest)
Monastic Granges (MP)
Moots (MP)
Multi Span Bridges
Nuneries (MP)
Potteries (Med)
Parish Churches (MP)
Quadrangular Castles
Regular Enclosed Field Systems (MP)
Regular Open Field Systems
Ringworks
River Fisheries (MP)
Roads
Secular Cathedrals
Shell Keeps
Shielings
Single Span Bridges
Stockaded Enclosures
Shrines (Post - Roman) (MP)
Tower Keep Castles (MP)
Trackways
Vills.
Vineyards (MP)
Warrens.
Water Meadows
Watermills
Woods (MP)

Post Medieval Monuments

Almshouses (MP)
Animal Pounds.
Archery Butts. (MP)
Artillery Castles (MP)
Bastles (MP)
Beacons (MP)
Blockhouses (MP)
Cathedrals (Post-Ref.)
Chain Towers (MP)
Clapper Bridges (MP)
Cockpits (MP)
Coastal Fish Weirs (MP)
Cottages (MP)
Decoy Ponds (MP)
Deerparks (MP)
Dovecotes (MP)
Earthen Artillery Defences (MP)
Field Barns (MP)
Field Works (MP)
Fishponds (MP)
Hospitals (MP)
Ice Houses
Irregular Enclosed Field Systems (MP)
Martello Towers
Mausolea
Monastic Granges (MP)
Non-Conformist Chapels
Parish Churches (MP)
Regular Enclosed Field Systems (MP)
River Fisheries (MP)
Tower Houses (MP)
Tower Keep Castles (MP)
Woods (MP)

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